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1.2.4 Extremist Radicalisation Policy

SCOPE OF THIS CHAPTER

This Policy is relevant to all staff involved in either receiving referrals or case holding in which concerns about extremist radicalisation become apparent.

RELEVANT GUIDANCE

Lincolnshire Safeguarding Children Board Procedures Manual, Supporting Children and Young People Vulnerable to Violent Extremism

RELEVANT CHAPTER

Initial Contact and Referrals Procedure

This chapter was added to the manual in June 2016.


Contents

  1. Purpose
  2. What is PREVENT/CHANNEL?
  3. Abbreviations and Terminology Used
  4. Criteria to Consider for a Referral to PREVENT/CHANNEL
  5. How to Refer to CHANNEL
  6. CSC Actions/Screening

    Appendix 1: Extremist Radicalisation Case Management Flowchart

    Appendix 2: Strategy Discussion/S47 Flowchart


1. Purpose

This policy provides the context for the guidance to staff involved in either receiving referrals or case holding in which concerns about extremist radicalisation become apparent.

This policy should be read in conjunction with the following guidance documents:

Further information on PREVENT can be found on Lincolnshire County Councils Intranet George or on the Lincolnshire Police website. All staff must have completed the relevant WRAP training.


2. What is PREVENT/CHANNEL?

PREVENT is the process where concerns about a young person or adult are becoming involved in extremist radicalisation are reported. It is a response to the ideological challenge of terrorism with aims to prevent individuals becoming drawn into terrorism. The PREVENT overarching strategy also works with sectors and institutions where there are risks to radicalisation.

PREVENT and CHANNEL are not aimed at a particular ideology, about tarnishing any religious or faith group, policing people's views, against radical thinking or spying on the community. CHANNEL aims to prevent people becoming criminalised and is a voluntary process.

When thinking of PREVENT and CHANNEL, think grooming.


3. Abbreviations and Terminology Used

AD Assistant Director
EMSOU-SB East Midlands Special Operations Unit – Special Branch
HSB Head of Special Branch
IMU Information Management Unit
PPU Public Protection Unit
SB Special Branch
Deconfliction The process completed by Special Branch where, during initial enquiries, there may be an indication that other agencies may be involved.


4. Criteria to Consider for a Referral to PREVENT/CHANNEL

The following list is not exhaustive, however there are specific areas of vulnerabilities to consider.  The key point to remember is that if there is a concern then it should be referred to CHANNEL, the concerns do not have to be limited to the indicators below.

Areas to consider are:

  • Engagement;
  • Intent;
  • Capability.

Engagement is whether a person is actively involved in, or espousing, a particular extremist ideology and there are views being given about moving from thought to action. This is not always the case and no-one should wait for this to become apparent before referring to CHANNEL.

Engagement factors could include:

  • Feelings of grievance, injustice or being under threat from groups or individuals;
  • The need for identity or a desire for status amongst or over others;
  • Desire for excitement/adventure;
  • Need to dominate or control others;
  • Desire for political or moral change;
  • Opportunistic involvement;
  • Family or friends involvement in extremist ideologies;
  • Mental health issues.

Intent is whether a person is espousing views of causing harm to others, these could include:

  • Attitudes that justify offending;
  • A potential use of harm to achieve an end or aim.

Capability is whether a person has access to training, resources or networks that could assist the intent. 

As with any factors this list is not exhaustive and you should not wait until a number of factors appear. If you have concerns then discuss with your supervisor and the Children's Services PREVENT lead. A person does not have to show vulnerabilities in all the areas before referring.  One of these factors is sufficient for a referral if warranted.

If you are concerned then you should make a referral.


5. How to Refer to CHANNEL

A case can be managed at TAC or EHA and have a PREVENT referral and CHANNEL work without the need to escalate to Social Care.

It is suggested that a referral is made in the first instance and then consent will be sought soon after.  Any engagement with PREVENT/CHANNEL is voluntary. A person cannot be compelled to engage.

If there is an indication of a child or the family as a whole moving to an area of conflict immediately then Police should be informed via 101 by the referrer. This is regardless of whether it is a case without involvement, EHA/TAC or open to Social Care. This should also be treated as requiring a Strategy Discussion to ensure safeguarding steps are taken appropriately.

If there is an indication of a child or the family as a whole considering moving to an area of conflict then a Strategy Discussion should be held with the Police and health. If there is no open Social Care case or it is open to EHA/TAC an immediate referral should be made to CSC. This should be treated as requiring a Strategy Discussion by CSC (see Section 6.1, Strategy Discussions).

For clarity, an indication of a move to an area of conflict can be to either support or oppose a proscribed/extremist group, i.e. going to fight for ISIS or going to fight against ISIS.

Cases open to Social Care should treat this as requiring a Strategy Discussion held with PPU CRU and health (see Section 6.1, Strategy Discussions).

Advice can be sought from the Children's Services PREVENT representative however this should not delay safeguarding action. If a Strategy Discussion is held that is triggered by extremist radicalisation concerns then this should also automatically trigger a referral to CHANNEL.

If during ongoing case work (EHA/TAC/CIN/CP/LAC) concerns are identified around extremist radicalisation then these can be discussed with the Children's Services PREVENT representative. A referral should be made by using the form on the PREVENT George page or the LSCB policy page. (see Lincolnshire Safeguarding Children Board Procedures Manual, Supporting Children and Young People Vulnerable to Violent Extremism, Appendix 2: Safeguarding vulnerable individuals from violent extremism – Referral Form) This is then emailed to channel@lincs.police.pnn.uk

The referrer will be contacted by the PREVENT Police lead for further information/discussions.  Following this it may be passed through to the CHANNEL multi-agency group. If this is the case the referrer should attend the meeting to share and gather information.

If the case is not accepted on to CHANNEL then at times advice can be given from the Police on methods of addressing the concerns. This should be included in any multi-agency support plan.

If the case is accepted on to CHANNEL then specialist support will be provided as identified through CHANNEL. This does not replace the normal case working and multi-agency working and must be included within this framework.


6. CSC Actions/Screening

If a contact is received at CSC that has an indication of extremist radicalisation then the screener and/or call taker should ensure that the agency has made a referral to PREVENT to run concurrent to the contact to CSC. It is the agencies responsibility to refer to PREVENT and not that of CSC.

Agencies must be clear that they remain responsible for the referral to PREVENT and also any safeguarding referral that is required. A referral to one part will not trigger a referral to another.

If a member of the public makes a contact to CSC which includes extremist radicalisation they should be encouraged to report the matter to the Police through 101.

A contact to CSC that is solely around extremist radicalisation does not warrant a Social Care referral in its own right depending upon the severity of the concerns. This should be considered on a case by case basis. If no Social Care escalation is completed then an EHA should be instigated.

In the event of there being an indication that a child or family is going to be removed to an area of conflict for extremist reasons then the referrer must be told to call Police on 101 immediately. This should then be treated as an urgent referral for the area team to hold a Strategy Discussion.

Note: 101 is used to allow SB notification to take place and the appropriate Police responses to take place.

6.1 Strategy Discussions 

Please refer to Strategy Discussion/S47 Flowchart – (Extremist Radicalisation) (see Appendix 2: Strategy Discussion/S47 Flowchart)

See also general Lincolnshire Safeguarding Children Board Procedures Manual, Strategy Discussion

Out of hours: 

In the event that a strategy discussion is required that includes or is due to extremist radicalisation then EDT should contact the Force Control room via 101 and ask for the duty DI. The Duty DI will then notify the EMSOU-SB on call to liaise around deconfliction and information sharing. The strategy discussion will then go ahead with the duty DI and EMSOU-SB representative (if required).

Working hours:

In the event that a Strategy Discussion is required that includes or is due to extremist radicalisation then the area team should contact CRU for an immediate strategy discussion in the usual way. CRU will notify the PPU CRU DI who will notify the EMSOU-SB on call to liaise around deconfliction and information sharing. The strategy discussion will then go ahead with the PPU duty DI, health representative and EMSOU-SB representative (if required).

6.2 Conflict of Interest

In the event that during deconfliction on a referral that has an immediate safeguarding need there is an indication that if, during initial enquiries, there is an indication that other agencies may be involved then the senior SB officer (usually local HSB), a senior representative from Children's Services (AD level) and senior officer from PPU should agree the progression of the case. This will be done on a case by case basis.

6.3 PNC/Police Checks

If during the course of case work a PNC/Police check is requested on an open social care case that has indications through NICHE of PREVENT involvement then the IMU will notify the PPU CRU DI.  The PPU CRU DI will then liaise with SB around relevant information sharing.

PREVENT information will then be included in the PNC shared information as relevant to the specific need.

6.4 CP Case Conferences

If a case conference is being held where radicalisation is an issue then the CRU DI will liaise with SB. SB will then share relevant information as required or attend the conference. This will be on a case by case basis.

6.5 Public Law Cases

The current guidance from Sir James Mumby: Guidance issued by Sir James Munby President of the Family Division on 8 October 2015 has indicated that any public law case that has been put before the Court due to radicalisation and the risk of removal to an area of conflict must be managed within the High Court.


Appendices

Appendix 1: Extremist Radicalisation Case Management Flowchart

Appendix 2: Strategy Discussion/S47 Flowchart

End